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#science

 

El universo en una línea




Fuente

Esta fórmula contiene toda la realidad hasta la escala que conocemos hoy. Es la piedra filosofal que buscaban los alquimistas. Es el Aleph.

En esa ecuación, W nos da la probabilidad de cualquier proceso físico que empieza en un estado inicial y termina en un estado final. El estado inicial consiste en un cierto número de partículas de distintos tipos desparramadas en el espacio. Lo mismo para el estado final.

La primera parte de la fórmula, etiquetada como "quantum mechanics", dice sume sobre todas las posibles trayectorias de las partículas de cada tipo que unan los estados inicial y final



CC BY-SA 3.0

Cada corchete es la suma sobre algún tipo dado de partícula [Dg] son los gravitones [DA] son fotones, mesones y gluones, [DPhi] (la O tachada verticalmente) es el bosón de Higgs, [Dpsi] (la U tachada verticalmente) es la materia: electrones, muones, quarks, y neutrinos.

Hay que sumar sobre todas las posibles trayectorias de todas esas partículas entre la configuración inicial y la configuración final. Cada trayectoria tiene un peso, que viene dado por todo lo que sigue en la fórmula entre los corchetes grandes. Esa parte contiene el peso de una trayectoria de gravitón (la parte con R etiquetada como "gravity") o de fotón o gluón (la parte con F etiquetada como "other forces") y así.

Entre todas las posibles trayectorias, existen algunas donde una partícula de un tipo se transforma en otras varias de otro tipo. Estos eventos se conocen como desintegraciones. Hay tambié otras trayectorias donde un cierto número de partículas de diversos tipos chocan y se transforman en una partícula de un tipo dado. Estas son las colisiones o fusiones. Para sumar sobre todas las trayectorias, hay que sumar también sobre las que tienen desintegraciones y colisiones o fusiones. La parte de la fórmula que entre los corchetes grandes contiene también la información sobre la probabilidad de tales eventos.

Si somos capaces de hacer suma sobre todas las trayectorias y calcular W, la probabilidad de pasar del estado inicial al final será WW*. El principal problema con esa fórmula es que podemos calcular dicha suma sólo cuando las desintegraciones y colisiones o fusiones son poco probables o débiles. Cuando esos procesos son muy probables o fuertes, no sabemos hacer la suma. En esos casos la fórmula es correcta pero por ahora inútil.

Bild/Foto
CC0

Las interacciones son fuertes en el núcleo atómico, en los agujeros negros, durante el Big Bang, en las colisiones del LHC, en los superconductores de alta temperatura, y en algunos otros casos. No casualmete, esas son las áreas más importantes de investigación dentro de la física teórica actual ¡queremos descubrir como sumar esa formula!

Hermosa ecuación. Obra de Richard P. Feynman y Paul A. M. Dirac, y varios cientos más de personas brillant¡ÑOQUIS!¡ÑOQUIS!¡LA PLATA DE MIS IMPUESTOS!

#spanish #español #ciencia #science #física #physics




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The World of Everyday Experience, In One Equation

 
Artificial intelligence improves seismic analyses

#eathquake #science

 
Fascinating. Some fish eggs can survive going through a bird's digestive system.
Killifish manage to endure a variety of environments. The wee freshwater fish survive in isolated desert pools, lakes made by flood water, even seasonal ponds that are little more than puddles.

One place scientists didn’t expect to find them was in swan poop. But an international team of researchers reported last week in the journal Ecology that whole killifish eggs make it through the digestive tract of water birds intact, with one egg in the study even hatching more than a month after its transit through a swan. The findings suggest that bird feces may be capable of carrying fish eggs far from their original locations.
[...]
The researchers are planning a similar experiment now that uses eggs from carp, which hatch much faster than killifish. As killifish and carp can be invasive species outside of their normal range, understanding how they spread can help in containment.
#Science #Biology #Fish #Birds #Nature #Biodiversity

The New York Times: The Fish Egg That Traveled Through a Swan’s Gut, Then Hatched (By VERONIQUE GREENWOOD)


 
Fascinating. Some fish eggs can survive going through a bird's digestive system.
Killifish manage to endure a variety of environments. The wee freshwater fish survive in isolated desert pools, lakes made by flood water, even seasonal ponds that are little more than puddles.

One place scientists didn’t expect to find them was in swan poop. But an international team of researchers reported last week in the journal Ecology that whole killifish eggs make it through the digestive tract of water birds intact, with one egg in the study even hatching more than a month after its transit through a swan. The findings suggest that bird feces may be capable of carrying fish eggs far from their original locations.
[...]
The researchers are planning a similar experiment now that uses eggs from carp, which hatch much faster than killifish. As killifish and carp can be invasive species outside of their normal range, understanding how they spread can help in containment.
#Science #Biology #Fish #Birds #Nature #Biodiversity

The New York Times: The Fish Egg That Traveled Through a Swan’s Gut, Then Hatched (By VERONIQUE GREENWOOD)


 

Schule - "Mathe wird für Prüfungszwecke missbraucht" - Bildung - Süddeutsche.de


#Mathe @Neurosehoernchen #Schule #Science

https://www.sueddeutsche.de/bildung/schule-mathematik-ranga-yogeshwar-1.4481198?utm_source=pocket-newtab

 

The Evolution of Trust - Nicky Case


an interactive guide to the game theory of why & how we trust each other.

#browser #game #science #GameTheory #psychology #maths #interessiert

 

Homeopathy-medicine induced severe alcoholic hepatitis | BMJ Case Reports

We present a teetotaler with compensated non-alcoholic fatty-liver-disease related cirrhosis who presented with acute worsening of his chronic liver disease. The acute event was not discernible even after extensive work up and finally a transjugular liver biopsy revealed features suggestive of severe alcoholic hepatitis. The patient and the family denied occult alcohol use when questioned over multiple times and finally, the culprit ‘alcohol’ was found to be the homoeopathy medicines that the patient was consuming over a month for treatment of Gilbert’s syndrome. We retrieved and tested the homoeopathy drug for alcohol content and found an alarming 18% ethanol in the same, confirming our diagnosis.
#science #homeopathy

 

The open access wars: How to free #science from academic paywalls - Vox http://bit.ly/2IyNIuM


 
Food Science! The science (and art) of making the perfect crêpe. :-)
A dollop of Nutella and slices of banana make for the perfect crêpe filling, at least according to Mathieu Sellier of the University of Canterbury in New Zealand. Edouard Boujo, who works at the École Polytechnique in France, smothers his in chocolate, nothing else. While the two disagree on what should coat these batter-based desserts, they concur that the crêpe itself should have a uniform thickness. Challenged by Sellier’s wife to use their physics expertise to suggest the optimal way to cook a crêpe, the duo finds that it requires inclining the frying pan and rotating it in circles.
#Science #Research #Food

 
Food Science! The science (and art) of making the perfect crêpe. :-)
A dollop of Nutella and slices of banana make for the perfect crêpe filling, at least according to Mathieu Sellier of the University of Canterbury in New Zealand. Edouard Boujo, who works at the École Polytechnique in France, smothers his in chocolate, nothing else. While the two disagree on what should coat these batter-based desserts, they concur that the crêpe itself should have a uniform thickness. Challenged by Sellier’s wife to use their physics expertise to suggest the optimal way to cook a crêpe, the duo finds that it requires inclining the frying pan and rotating it in circles.
#Science #Research #Food

 

The open access wars: How to free #science from academic paywalls - Vox http://bit.ly/2IyNIuM


 

The open access wars: How to free #science from academic paywalls - Vox http://bit.ly/2IyNIuM


 
Just One Drop — The Science of Homeopathy: Homeopathy is in wide use in European and Asian countries and even practiced by Britain's royal family

https://articles.mercola.com/sites/articles/archive/2019/06/08/just-one-drop-homeopathy.aspx

#Homeopathy #Science #Europe #Asia #British-RoyalFamily

 
#science #sciencemanuelacasasoli
Seals, sunsets and giant snakes — May’s best science images.
The month’s sharpest science shots — selected by Nature’s photo team
.

 
#science #sciencemanuelacasasoli
Seals, sunsets and giant snakes — May’s best science images.
The month’s sharpest science shots — selected by Nature’s photo team
.

 
#science #bias #gender #ethnicity

Study finds bias in postdoctoral hiring

While applicants for faculty positions typically are interviewed and hired by a committee, postdoctoral positions are often reviewed in isolation by the faculty member hiring the position. Researchers manipulated the names of the applicants to indicate their gender, race and ethnicity. The 251 biology and physics faculty who participated in the study were told they would be helping determine which CV format was best.

Professors in both fields showed racial bias. Physicists also favored male applicants. Biologists, however, didn't show a gender preference.

Physicists rated Asian and White candidates higher on competence and hireability than they did Black and Latino applicants. They also dealt a double blow to Black and Latina women, who they rated three points lower on hireability than White and Asian men.

Biologists found Asian and White applicants more competent than Black applicants. Asian applicants received higher marks for hireability than did Black and Latino applicants.

 
#science #bias #gender #ethnicity

Study finds bias in postdoctoral hiring

While applicants for faculty positions typically are interviewed and hired by a committee, postdoctoral positions are often reviewed in isolation by the faculty member hiring the position. Researchers manipulated the names of the applicants to indicate their gender, race and ethnicity. The 251 biology and physics faculty who participated in the study were told they would be helping determine which CV format was best.

Professors in both fields showed racial bias. Physicists also favored male applicants. Biologists, however, didn't show a gender preference.

Physicists rated Asian and White candidates higher on competence and hireability than they did Black and Latino applicants. They also dealt a double blow to Black and Latina women, who they rated three points lower on hireability than White and Asian men.

Biologists found Asian and White applicants more competent than Black applicants. Asian applicants received higher marks for hireability than did Black and Latino applicants.

 

Bombas de agujero negro: la Molotov del nerd




CC0

A las bombas de agujero negro, o BH bombs, también se les puede asociar un apellido ruso: el de Saul Teukolsky, quién las inventó en colaboración con William Press. Se basan en un fenómeno interesantísimo conocido como superradiancia, que contiene una cantidad hermosa de física en su descripción.

Imaginemos el sonido que constituye una palabra. Viaja por el aire en forma de una perturbación u onda, y transmite información.



CC0

Ese sonido está compuesto de varios tonos puros, mezclados de una manera compleja. Sin embargo, los tonos puros no transmiten información, después de todo nada es menos significativo que un monótono tuuuuuuuu (de hecho la palabra monótono significa un solo tono). Es la mezcla de varios tonos lo que contiene la información de la palabra.

Cada tono viaja independientemente por el aire, moviéndose con una velocidad propia, conocida como velocidad de fase. Lo interesante es que la palabra, que como vimos es una mezcla de tonos, se mueve con otra velocidad, diferente, conocida como velocidad de grupo.

Es decir que cada uno de los tonos se puede estar moviendo más rápida o más lentamente que la palabra en sí. Las velocidades de fase y de grupo son diferentes. Esta situación puede ser más extraña aún: en algunas circunstancias extremas, los tonos puros se pueden estar moviendo en la dirección contraria a la de la palabra completa. La velocidad de fase y la de grupo estarían yendo en direcciones distintas. Esta situación se llama superradiancia.

Todo lo anterior sobre el sonido se puede aplicar a la luz o a las ondas de radio. Hay una velocidad de fase para los colores o frecuencias puras, y hay una velocidad de grupo para el rayo de una linterna o la señal de Internet. Y pueden ir en direcciones contrarias



CC0

Si incluimos agujeros negros, el cuadro se vuelve aun más interesante. Como nada puede salir de un agujero negro, las velocidades de cualquier cosa en su vecindad deben ir hacia adentro. En otras palabras los objetos caen en el agujero negro. Pero cuando hay superradiancia, las velocidades de grupo y fase van en direcciones contrarias, y entonces aparece un interrogante: ¿cuál de las dos es la que debe ir hacia adentro del agujero negro?

Recordemos que la velocidad de fase es la del color o frecuencia pura, y la de grupo es la de la señal que transmite la información.

Lo que no puede salir de un agujero negro es la información. Por lo tanto es la velocidad de grupo la que debe apuntar hacia adentro del objeto. La información debe estar cayendo en el agujero negro.

La dirección de la velocidad de fase, por otro lado, es irrelevante, ya que los colores puros no transmiten información. Si hay superradiancia, el hecho de que la velocidad de grupo vaya hacia adentro del agujero negro implica que la de fase, que va en sentido contrario, debe ir hacia afuera ¡Salen colores puros del agujero negro!

Por lo tanto cuando hay superradiancia, el agujero negro está brillando en un color puro y emitiendo energía. Esta energía se puede concentrar poniendo un espejo alrededor del objeto. Si el espejo es bueno, la concentración de energía es explosiva. Esto es una bomba de agujero negro o BH bomb.

No creo que las BH bombs estén disponibles en el corto plazo. Es el tipo de investigación básica, no aplicada, que rinde frutos sólo al cabo de muchos años. Este suele ser el tipo de investigación más cuestionado por los defensores del ajuste en ciencia y tecnología. En función de esto, dejaré intrucciones precisas a mis nietos, para que vuelen a la mierda la descendencia de los imbéciles que hoy nos llaman "inútiles".

#ciencia #science #español #spanish #física #physics




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Harrison Ford: "Stop Giving Power to People Who Don't Believe in Science" https://www.physics-astronomy.org/2018/09/harrison-ford-stop-giving-power-to.html
#science #ciencia #climate #clima #cambioClimático

 
Harrison Ford: "Stop Giving Power to People Who Don't Believe in Science" https://www.physics-astronomy.org/2018/09/harrison-ford-stop-giving-power-to.html
#science #ciencia #climate #clima #cambioClimático

 
Harrison Ford: "Stop Giving Power to People Who Don't Believe in Science" https://www.physics-astronomy.org/2018/09/harrison-ford-stop-giving-power-to.html
#science #ciencia #climate #clima #cambioClimático

 

Trump attacks Nasa and claims the moon is 'a part' of Mars | The Guardian


There it is! The headline you've been waiting for! 😂😂😂
Followers of astronomy were in for a surprise on Friday, when Donald Trump announced that the moon is part of Mars.

In a tweet, apparently commenting on his own administration’s space policy, the president said: “For all of the money we are spending, NASA should NOT be talking about going to the Moon - We did that 50 years ago.”

He added: “They should be focused on the much bigger things we are doing, including Mars (of which the Moon is a part), Defense and Science!”
#science #notscience #astronomy #notastronomy

 

Trump attacks Nasa and claims the moon is 'a part' of Mars | The Guardian


There it is! The headline you've been waiting for! 😂😂😂
Followers of astronomy were in for a surprise on Friday, when Donald Trump announced that the moon is part of Mars.

In a tweet, apparently commenting on his own administration’s space policy, the president said: “For all of the money we are spending, NASA should NOT be talking about going to the Moon - We did that 50 years ago.”

He added: “They should be focused on the much bigger things we are doing, including Mars (of which the Moon is a part), Defense and Science!”
#science #notscience #astronomy #notastronomy

 

Personalised app for safe sunbathing wins support


Bild/Foto

Bild/Foto

A mobile phone app that uses space tech to identify the healthiest way to sunbathe has won the industrial approval of BASF, a giant chemical company that makes the ingredients for sunscreen and many other products.

#news #space #science #esa #europeanspaceagency
posted by pod_feeder_v2

 

Personalised app for safe sunbathing wins support


Bild/Foto

Bild/Foto

A mobile phone app that uses space tech to identify the healthiest way to sunbathe has won the industrial approval of BASF, a giant chemical company that makes the ingredients for sunscreen and many other products.

#news #space #science #esa #europeanspaceagency
posted by pod_feeder_v2

 
Unusual Japanese plant inspires recalculation of equation used to model leaf arrangement patterns

This is fascinating. How different pattern are recognizable in leaves
#math #nature #plants #science

 
Solved: How tides can trigger earthquakes

#eathquake #science

 

Mai Thi Nguyen-Kim: Bei ihr macht’s klick | ZEIT Campus

Ihre YouTube-Videos über Genmanipulation und Feinstaub schauen Hunderttausende. Jetzt erobert Mai Thi Nguyen-Kim den WDR. Wer ist diese Frau, der alles gelingt?
Defintiv eine interessante und coole Frau. Auch wenn ich sie bisher nur ein paar mal bei Quarks und Co gesehen habe.
#science #youtube

 
#science #sciencemanuelacasasoli
Much effort has gone towards crafting mandates and standards for researchers to share their data. Considerably less time has been spent measuring just how valuable data sharing is, or recognizing the scientific contributions of the people responsible for those data sets. The impact of research continues to be measured by primary publications, rather than by subsequent uses of the data.
To incentivize the sharing of useful data, the scientific enterprise needs a well-defined system that links individuals with reuse of data sets they generate

 
#science #sciencemanuelacasasoli
Much effort has gone towards crafting mandates and standards for researchers to share their data. Considerably less time has been spent measuring just how valuable data sharing is, or recognizing the scientific contributions of the people responsible for those data sets. The impact of research continues to be measured by primary publications, rather than by subsequent uses of the data.
To incentivize the sharing of useful data, the scientific enterprise needs a well-defined system that links individuals with reuse of data sets they generate

 

New era for New Norcia deep space antenna


Bild/Foto

Bild/Foto

The 35-m deep space antenna in New Norcia, Western Australia, is being looked after by a new team, led for the first time by a female site manager, Suzy Jackson.

#news #space #science #esa #europeanspaceagency
posted by pod_feeder_v2

 

New era for New Norcia deep space antenna


Bild/Foto

Bild/Foto

The 35-m deep space antenna in New Norcia, Western Australia, is being looked after by a new team, led for the first time by a female site manager, Suzy Jackson.

#news #space #science #esa #europeanspaceagency
posted by pod_feeder_v2

 

We Can Save Schroedinger's Cat !

and make some cool computers too

Yale researchers have figured out how to catch and save Schrödinger's famous cat, the symbol of quantum superposition and unpredictability, by anticipating its jumps and acting in real time to save it from proverbial doom.

The Yale team used a special approach to indirectly monitor a superconducting artificial atom, with three microwave generators irradiating the atom enclosed in a 3-D cavity made of aluminum. The doubly indirect monitoring method, developed by Minev for superconducting circuits, allows the researchers to observe the atom with unprecedented efficiency.

Microwave radiation stirs the artificial atom as it is simultaneously being observed, resulting in quantum jumps. The tiny quantum signal of these jumps can be amplified without loss to room temperature. Here, their signal can be monitored in real time. This enabled the researchers to see a sudden absence of detection photons (photons emitted by an ancillary state of the atom excited by the microwaves); this tiny absence is the advance warning of a quantum jump.

"The beautiful effect displayed by this experiment is the increase of coherence during the jump, despite its observation," said Devoret. Added Minev, "You can leverage this to not only catch the jump, but also reverse it."
https://phys.org/news/2019-06-physicists-schrodinger-cat.amp

#Science #Quantum #Physics #Schroedinger's #Cat #Mew #CliffBramlettArchivesScience

 

We Can Save Schroedinger's Cat !

and make some cool computers too

Yale researchers have figured out how to catch and save Schrödinger's famous cat, the symbol of quantum superposition and unpredictability, by anticipating its jumps and acting in real time to save it from proverbial doom.

The Yale team used a special approach to indirectly monitor a superconducting artificial atom, with three microwave generators irradiating the atom enclosed in a 3-D cavity made of aluminum. The doubly indirect monitoring method, developed by Minev for superconducting circuits, allows the researchers to observe the atom with unprecedented efficiency.

Microwave radiation stirs the artificial atom as it is simultaneously being observed, resulting in quantum jumps. The tiny quantum signal of these jumps can be amplified without loss to room temperature. Here, their signal can be monitored in real time. This enabled the researchers to see a sudden absence of detection photons (photons emitted by an ancillary state of the atom excited by the microwaves); this tiny absence is the advance warning of a quantum jump.

"The beautiful effect displayed by this experiment is the increase of coherence during the jump, despite its observation," said Devoret. Added Minev, "You can leverage this to not only catch the jump, but also reverse it."
https://phys.org/news/2019-06-physicists-schrodinger-cat.amp

#Science #Quantum #Physics #Schroedinger's #Cat #Mew #CliffBramlettArchivesScience

 
Beamen mit Quanten

Erstmalig gelang die Teleportation einer Rechenoperation von einem Qbit zu einem anderen Qbit.

"Für die „Teleportation“ nutzten die Wissenschaftler zwei miteinander verschränkte Magnesium-Ionen. Sie dienten als „Boten“, die die Information über das Logikgatter und den Zustand des ersten Qubits übertrugen. Dank Verschränkung geht dies instantan und ohne räumliche Bewegung der Ionen. „Der Clou ist, dass jedes Qubit ein Ion eines weiteren verschränkten Paares zur Seite hat“, erklärt Dietrich Leibfried vom NIST. „Erst diese verschränkten Helfer ermöglichen es uns, diesen Quantentrick auszuführen.“ (Zitat https://www.scinexx.de/news/technik/physiker-teleportieren-quantenoperation/)

"Scotty, beamme up"liegt für uns immer noch in weiter Ferne.
Jedoch eröffnet das Forschungsergebnis Möglichkeiten für sehr umfassende Quantencomputer mit Tausenden bis Millionen von Quantenbits.

Eine deutsche Zusammenfassung gibt es hier:

Logikgatter CNOT zwischen zwei getrennten Ionen-Qubits übertragen Physiker teleportieren Quantenoperation - scinexx | Das Wissensmagazin https://www.scinexx.de/news/technik/physiker-teleportieren-quantenoperation/
#Wissenschaft #Science #Quanten #Quantencomuter #Teleportation
Physiker teleportieren Quantenoperation

 
Der Prüfer der Enigma | HNF Blog
Vor hundert Jahren, am 1. Juni 1919, wurde in Hildesheim Gisbert Hasenjaeger geboren. Im Krieg arbeitete er in der Chiffrierabteilung des Oberkommandos der Wehrmacht. Danach studierte er in Münster und promovierte im Fach Mathematik; ab 1962 lehrte er an der Universität Bonn mathematische Logik. Er baute auch funktionsfähige Turing-Maschinen. Gisbert Hasenjaeger starb 2006 in Plettenberg.
#science #history #HNF #crypto
Der Prüfer der Enigma

 
Right.
This is the whole point. Scientists are not out there, working every day to screw us over.

#medical #science works on #vaccination for our #health, while #quacks, possibly inspired by foreign regimes, want you to believe in #fake-news. #unfounded #fear is used to spread #illness in the #population and weaken our #society.

Who do you think will benefit from our gullibility?

 
Right.
This is the whole point. Scientists are not out there, working every day to screw us over.

#medical #science works on #vaccination for our #health, while #quacks, possibly inspired by foreign regimes, want you to believe in #fake-news. #unfounded #fear is used to spread #illness in the #population and weaken our #society.

Who do you think will benefit from our gullibility?

 
Bild/Foto

Hormones


A hormone is a signaling molecule produced by endocrine glands, orchestrated by the brain, that is carried in the blood to target organs for regulation of physiology.

Taking an exogenous hormone (from an outside source) will create negative feedback. This means the brain registers the hormone and responds but shutting down the gland normally involved in production.
#medicine #health #science

 
"Blut und Boden". Nazi-Wissenschaft | ARTE

Echt interessante und heftige Doku über Wissenschaft in der Nazizeit. Angefangen von den Archäologischen Expeditionen zum Germanentum und den Anatomie Experimenten an KZ Häftlingen.
Und viel schlimm, dass fast alle Ausschreibung später weiter an Unis geforscht und gelehrt haben.

#science #Nazis #Doku