A funny and impressive conversation between Russian Jew and Moroccan Arab :)
A funny and impressive conversation between Russian Jew and Moroccan Arab :)
What’s wrong with taking knee? In many countries people put their hand on their heart, take hat off, pose in a very emotional manner or even cry when their national anthem (a song!) plays even before a f… sport game. So what’s wrong if some people take knee down to reflect respect for those people whose LIVES are not RESPECTED. Taking knee, as that national song, a f… flag, are symbols. I’m sure you understand that. I’m truly respect those “six brave men” that stand (...)
Photo: (c) University of Manchester.
Dead Sea Scroll fragments thought to be blank reveal text
May 15, 2020
Posted in Archives & Collections
Our new research has revealed that four Dead Sea Scroll manuscript fragments housed at The University of Manchester’s John Rylands Library, which were previously thought to be blank, do in fact contain text.
The discovery means that The University of Manchester is the only institution in the UK to possess authenticated textual fragments of the Dead Sea Scrolls.
Unlike the recent cases of forgeries assumed to be Dead Sea Scrolls fragments, all of these small pieces were unearthed in the official excavations of the Qumran caves, and were never passed through the antiquities market.
In the 1950s, the fragments were gifted by the Jordanian government to Ronald Reed, leather expert at the University of Leeds, so he could study their physical and chemical composition. It was assumed that the pieces were ideal for scientific tests, as they were blank and relatively worthless. These were studied and published by Reed and his student John Poole, and then stored safely away.
In 1997 the Reed Collection was donated to The University of Manchester through the initiative of Rylands Professor of Biblical Criticism and Exegesis, George Brooke. These fragments have been stored in Reed’s own labelled boxes in The John Rylands Library, and have been relatively untouched since then.
When examining the fragments for the new study, Professor Joan Taylor thought it possible that one of them did actually contain a letter, and therefore decided to photograph all of the existing fragments over 1 cm that appear blank to the naked eye, using multispectral imaging.
51 fragments were imaged front and back. Six were identified for further detailed investigation – of these, it was established that four have readable Hebrew/Aramaic text written in carbon-based ink. The study has also revealed ruled lines and small vestiges of letters on other fragments.
The most substantial fragment has the remains of four lines of text with 15-16 letters, most of which are only partially preserved, but the word Shabbat (Sabbath) can be clearly read. This text (Ryl4Q22) may be related to the biblical book of Ezekiel (46:1-3). One piece with text is the edge of a parchment scroll section, with sewn thread, and the first letters of two lines of text may be seen to the left of this binding.
“Looking at one of the fragments with a magnifying glass, I thought I saw a small, faded letter – a lamed, the Hebrew letter ‘L’,” said Professor Taylor. “Frankly, since all these fragments were supposed to be blank and had even been cut into for leather studies, I also thought I might be imagining things. But then it seemed maybe other fragments could have very faded letters too.”
“With new techniques for revealing ancient texts now available, I felt we had to know if these letters could be exposed. There are only a few on each fragment, but they are like missing pieces of a jigsaw puzzle you find under a sofa.”
The Dead Sea Scrolls (also the Qumran Caves Scrolls) are ancient Jewish religious manuscripts that were found in the Qumran Caves in the Judaean Desert, near Ein Feshkha on the northern shore of the Dead Sea in the West Bank. Scholarly consensus dates these scrolls from the last three centuries BCE and the first century CE. The texts have great historical, religious, and linguistic significance because they include the second-oldest known surviving manuscripts of works later included in the Hebrew Bible canon, along with deuterocanonical and extra-biblical manuscripts which preserve evidence of the diversity of religious thought in late Second Temple Judaism. Almost all of the Dead Sea Scrolls are held by the state of Israel in the Shrine of the Book on the grounds of the Israel Museum, but ownership of the scrolls is disputed by Jordan and Palestine.Photo: the Israel Antiquities Authority; photographer not named. June 1993. Library of Congress
Many thousands of written fragments have been discovered in the Dead Sea area. They represent the remnants of larger manuscripts damaged by natural causes or through human interference, with the vast majority holding only small scraps of text. However, a small number of well-preserved, almost intact manuscripts have survived – fewer than a dozen among those from the Qumran Caves. Researchers have assembled a collection of 981 different manuscripts – discovered in 1946/47 and in 1956 – from 11 caves. The 11 Qumran Caves lie in the immediate vicinity of the Hellenistic-period Jewish settlement at Khirbet Qumran in the eastern Judaean Desert, in the West Bank. The caves are located about one mile (1.6 kilometres) west of the northwest shore of the Dead Sea, whence they derive their name. Scholarly consensus dates the Qumran Caves Scrolls from the last three centuries BCE and the first century CE. Bronze coins found at the same sites form a series beginning with John Hyrcanus (in office 135–104 BCE) and continuing until the period of the First Jewish–Roman War (66–73 CE), supporting the radiocarbon and paleographic dating of the scrolls.
In the larger sense, the Dead Sea Scrolls include manuscripts from additional Judaean Desert sites, dated as early as the 8th century BCE and as late as the 11th century CE.
Biblical texts older than the Dead Sea Scrolls have been discovered only in two silver scroll-shaped amulets containing portions of the Priestly Blessing from the Book of Numbers, excavated in Jerusalem at Ketef Hinnom and dated c. 600 BCE; some scholars also include the controversial Shapira Scroll. The third-oldest surviving known piece of the Torah, the En-Gedi Scroll, consists of a portion of Leviticus found in the Ein Gedi synagogue, burnt in the 6th century CE and analyzed in 2015. Research has dated it palaeographically to the 1st or 2nd century CE, and using the C14 method to sometime between the 2nd and 4th centuries CE.
Yom HaZikaron (Hebrew: יוֹם הַזִּכָּרוֹן, lit. 'Memorial Day') is Israel's official remembrance day, enacted into law in 1963. While Yom HaZikaron has been traditionally dedicated to fallen soldiers, commemoration has also been extended to civilian victims of terrorism.
The day opens with a siren the preceding evening at 20:00 (8:00 pm), given that in the Hebrew calendar system, a day begins at sunset. The siren is heard all over the country and lasts for one minute, during which Israelis stop everything, including driving on highways, and stand in silence, commemorating the fallen and showing respect.
By law, all places of entertainment are closed on the eve of Yom HaZikaron, and broadcasting and educational bodies note the solemnity of the day. Regular television programs cease for the day, and the names and ranks of every soldier who died for Israel are displayed in a 24-hour television broadcast.
A two-minute siren is sounded at 11:00 the following morning, which marks the opening of the official memorial ceremonies and private remembrance gatherings at each cemetery where soldiers are buried.
Many Israelis visit the resting places of loved ones throughout the day.
Memorial candles are lit in homes, army camps, schools, synagogues, and public places, and flags are lowered to half staff. Throughout the day, serving and retired military personnel serve as honor guards at war memorials throughout the country, and the families of the fallen participate in memorial ceremonies at military cemeteries.
Channel 33 has screened the names of all civilians killed in pogroms since 1851, and all fallen from 1860 (considered the date of the beginning of the Yishuv by the Israeli Ministry of Defense), in chronological order (rank, name, Hebrew date deceased and secular date) over the course of the day.
Pidyon Shvuyim (Hebrew: פִּדְיוֹן שְׁבוּיִים, literally: Redemption of Captives) is a religious duty in Judaism to bring about the release of a fellow Jew captured by slave dealers or robbers, or imprisoned unjustly by the authorities. The release of the prisoner is typically secured by a ransom paid by the Jewish community. It is considered an important commandment in Jewish law. he Talmud calls pidyon shvuyim a “mitzvah rabbah”, a great mitzvah, as captivity is viewed as even worse than starvation and death (Bava Batra 8b).#Naama #Issachar #Gilad #Shalit #Israel #Israeli #Defense #Forces #soldier #jew #jewish #Middle East #Zahal #army #military #IDF #photo #news #USA #free #Freedom #life
Maimonides writes: “The redeeming of captives takes precedence over supporting the poor or clothing them. There is no greater mitzvah than redeeming captives for the problems of the captive include being hungry, thirsty, unclothed, and they are in danger of their lives too. Ignoring the need to redeem captives goes against these Torah laws: “Do not harden your heart or shut your hand against your needy fellow” (Devarim 15:7); “Do not stand idly by while your neighbor’s blood is shed” (Vayikra 19:16). And misses out on the following mitzvot: “You must surely open your hand to him or her” (Devarim 15:8); “…Love your neighbor as yourself” (Vayikra 19:18); “Rescue those who are drawn to death” (Proverbs 24:11) and "… there is no mitzvah greater than the redeeming of captives.” (Maimonides, Mishneh Torah, Hilchot Matanot Aniyim 8:10-11). The Shulchan Aruch adds: “Every moment that one delays in freeing captives, in cases where it is possible to expedite their freedom, is considered to be tantamount to murder.” (Shulchan Aruch, Yoreh De’ah 252:3)
Naama is free, but our joy is mixed with tears
The release of a person from prison is always a joyous moment. When you’ve put your own effort into fighting for this individual’s release and you know for sure she is innocent, the joy doubles. Which is why I certainly am genuinely happy about my client Naama Issachar’s release, her return home and reunification with her loved ones. My heartfelt congratulations to all!
We have witnessed impressive solidarity with Naama on the part of Israeli society, lawyers, journalists, the diplomatic corps, and the government, including the highest-ranking officials. This is an inspiring example of effective collaboration between civil society, professional communities and the authorities. The story also deeply touched Russian journalists, lawyers, human rights activists, public figures, and ordinary people who simply cared. All of this instills the most genuine respect and appreciation.
It was impossible not to free Naama: her sentence was blatantly unjust, and we clearly exposed that fact at the hearing in the court of appeal, which received close international attention and interest, both public and non-public. The response given by the court of appeal was emblematic of the injustice that characterized this entire case: it contains 20 pages of the defense’s contentions regarding the irrefutable flaws in the sentence, and one page — a meaningless declaration — on why the defense’s claims were dismissed, without the slightest attempt to provide any substantive arguments.
And this is the very drop of poison that turns today’s simple joy into joy mixed with tears. Yes, Naama is free. But her case was a travesty of justice. She spent nine and a half months in detention, branded as a drug offender, an utterly bogus charge devoid of factual or legal grounds. Is that fair? Is that legal? Is that just? Despite the President’s assurance, everything is not okay.
About the Author
Vadim Klyuvgant, a partner at the Russian law firm Pen & Paper, is the chief lawyer in the Naama Issachar case.
Content warning: Bird Site; Might Be NSFW
Like the others, he wears a uniform, but he is my brother. Like the others, he carries a gun, but he is my friend. Each soldier is unique through the eyes of someone who looks up to them.
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#Hanukkah #congratulations #Israel #Israeli #Defense #Forces #soldiers #jew #jewish #Middle East #Zahal #army #military #IDF #video #photo #news #t-sirt #America #USA
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