#Earth #NorthPole #Polartern #MOSAIC #Oceanography #ClimateChange
The expedition - MOSAiC Expedition
127 years ago, the Norwegian researcher and explorer Fridtjof Nansen set sail on the first ever drift expedition with his wooden sailing ship Fram. But there has never been an expedition like the one now planned: for the first time, the MOSAiC project takes a modern research icebreaker laden with scientific instruments close to the North Pole in winter.
The name MOSAiC (Multidisciplinary drifting Observatory for the Study of Arctic Climate) mirrors the complexity and diversity of this expedition.
MOSAiC is the first year-round expedition into the central Arctic exploring the Arctic climate system. The project with a total budget exceeding 140 Million € has been designed by an international consortium of leading polar research institutions, led by the Alfred Wegener Institute, Helmholtz Centre for Polar and Marine Research (AWI).
The Transpolar Drift web
Figure 1: Not only the science behind MOSAiC is a huge endeavour that needs the expertise of multiple nations and scientific disciplines, but also the logistics face unparalleled challenges.
The backbone of MOSAiC is the year-round operation of RV Polarstern, drifting with the sea ice across the central Arctic during the years 2019 to 2020. During the set-up phase, RV Polarstern entered the Siberian sector of the Arctic in the thin sea ice conditions of late summer.
A distributed regional network of observational sites has been set up on the sea ice in an area of up to ~40 km distance from RV Polarstern. The ship and the surrounding network are now drifting with the natural ice drift across the polar cap towards the Atlantic, while the sea ice thickens during winter (red dotted line in Figure 1).
Large scale research facilities addressing key aspects of the coupled Arctic climate system have been set up on board of RV Polarstern and on the sea ice next to it, in the so-called ice camp.
The distributed regional network further around the central observatory is comprised of autonomous and remotely-operated sensors, characterizing the heterogeneity of key processes in an area representing a typical grid box of modern climate models and providing invaluable data for the development of parametrizations for sub-grid-scale processes in climate models.
- Understanding the consequences of Arctic climate change
MOSAiC will contribute to a quantum leap in our understanding of the coupled Arctic climate system and its representation in global climate models.
The focus of MOSAiC lies on direct in-situ observations of the climate processes that couple the atmosphere, ocean, sea ice, biogeochemistry, and ecosystem.
The German research aircrafts Polar 5 and Polar 6 will be operated to complement the measurements at the central MOSAiC site. A landing strip will be built especially for these research planes and for resupply flights in spring 2020.
Research and supply cruises by icebreakers from MOSAiC partners will provide support for the AWI research vessel Polarstern. They will further extend the geographical coverage of the observations and will link the measurements to the larger scales of the Arctic climate system and explore global feedbacks.
In addition, helicopters will be employed. Fuel depots for long-range helicopters have been set up on Bolshevik Island to broaden the spectrum of response options to potential emergency situations during the expedition.
Expedition teilt gruselige Fotos vom Nordpol#SchlechteNachrichten #BadNews
Loses und schwaches Eis mit vielen Schmelzteichen, teilweise offenem Wasser und ohne Anzeichen von mehrjährigem Eis. Die kraftvollen Fotos von der MOSAiC-Expedition, die am 19. August den Nordpol erreichte, zeigen die dramatischen Auswirkungen des Klimawandels.
Expedition shares scary photos from the North Pole
Loose and weak ice with lots of melt ponds, partly open water, and no signs of multiyear ice. The powerful photos from the MOSAiC expedition reaching the North Pole on August 19 show the dramatic impact of climate changes.
Russian space agency chief Dmitry Rogozin once ridiculed the lack of a U.S. manned flight programme, saying it might as well "deliver its astronauts to the ISS by using a trampoline".(c) Photo: MK
Six years later Elon Musk and NASA had the last laugh.
"The trampoline is working," quipped the 48-year-old U.S. entrepreneur at a post-flight news conference alongside NASA administrator Jim Bridenstine.
Both men laughed. "It's an inside joke," Musk added.
On Saturday, his SpaceX made history by becoming the first commercial company to send humans into orbit.
The U.S. feat and Musk's joke set Russian social media alight, with wits ridiculing Rogozin, and the Russian space chief's name began trending on Twitter.
"How do you like this, Dmitry Rogozin?" one critic prodded.
Russia still prides itself on sending the first human into orbit in 1961 and other achievements of the Soviet-era space programme.
Rogozin has remained conspicuously silent but his spokesman was forced to react.
"We don't really understand the hysteria sparked by the successful launch of a Crew Dragon spacecraft," spokesman Vladimir Ustimenko said on Twitter.
"What should have happened a long time ago happened," he added.
While cosmonaut Sergei Krikalev, Roscosmos executive director for crewed space programmes, saluted the US achievement in a brief video address, not everyone was in such a gracious mood.
Alexey Pushkov, a member of the upper house of parliament, declared Saturday's flight was not a big deal.
"This is a flight to the International Space Station, not to Mars," he said on messaging app Telegram.
He pronounced it time to stop ferrying Americans to the orbiting lab.
"Russia needs spaces for its own young cosmonauts."
Most animals exterminated,
burned most of the woods away.
The old teachings ridiculed aloud,
did not recognize the new teachings.
The vanity remains stable,
it's gearing up for the final game.
The hatred of races and religions,
the strong will never spare the weak.
The great will never protect the small,
the money will always benefit the rich.
And love that dares to bloom
will be sprayed with pesticide.
The old wars are forgotten,
the new wars have already begun.
Eating half the animal kingdom,
Now the view aims at strange suns.
The bridge man to man closed,
and tears are shed at best.
As a bonding agent between Mine and I,
you're just running in big circles around the ego.
The sky is empty, the deserts are growing,
the industry with well-oiled axles.
Money is festering from all wounds,
man inhabits the scars of this world.
And love that dares to bloom,
will be sprayed with pesticide.